As the coronavirus continues to spread, a small medical device called a pulse oximeter has started to fly off the shelves. Usage of Pulse oximeters have been proposed in the early detection of COVID-19 infections, which may cause initially unnoticeable low arterial oxygen saturation and hypoxia. Studies of reliability show mixed results, but many doctors are advising patients to get one, making it the go-to gadget of the pandemic. The demand has spiked to such an extraordinary degree that you may not be able to buy one right now in your local pharmacy or online.
So, what is a pulse oximeter and how can it be used in COVID -19 Pandemic?
COVID-19 can bring on what’s called COVID pneumonia, an infection in which the lung’s air sacs fill with fluid or pus. And it’s possible that someone infected with the novel coronavirus might be in the early stages of COVID pneumonia, including a drop in blood oxygen level, without experiencing any difficulty in breathing.
Pulse oximetry, a noninvasive and painless device, helps in measuring the oxygen saturation level, or the oxygen levels in the blood. It can rapidly detect even small changes in the concentration of oxygen which is being carried to the extremities furthest from the heart, including the legs and the arms.
How to Use it & Basic Principle of Function:
To obtain the pulse oximetry reading, a small clamp-like device is placed on a finger, earlobe, or toe. Small beams of light pass through the blood in the finger, measuring the amount of oxygen. It does this by measuring changes of light absorption in oxygenated or deoxygenated blood. This is a painless process. The pulse oximeter not only detects the oxygen saturation levels but can also monitor the heart rate.
Reading and Interpretation
An oxygen saturation level of 95% is considered normal for most healthy individuals. A level of 92% indicates potential hypoxemia, or deficiency in oxygen reaching tissues in the body.
Hear Rate Range (beats per minute)
- Newborn – 2years: 100-180bpm
- 2-10 yrs: 60-140bpm
- 10yrs – adult: 50-100bpm
How accurate is the pulse oximeter?
The oxygen level from a pulse oximeter is reasonably accurate. Most oximeters give a reading + 2% in comparison to the saturation level obtained by an arterial blood gas. For example, if your oxygen saturation reads 94% on the pulse oximeter, it may be actually anywhere from 92 to 96%
Factors that can interfere with the accuracy of the readings are:
- Patient movement
- Cold Hands
- Nail Polish
The best reading, therefore, is achieved when your hand is warm, relaxed, and held below the level of your heart. If the patient is a smoker, unfortunately, the reading on oximeter may be higher than the actual oxygen saturation. This is because smoking increases carbon monoxide levels in blood, and the oximeter cannot tell the difference between the gas carbon monoxide from oxygen.